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1.1.3 Factors influencing performance management in a term of the measurement
There are many factors influencing job performance. They usually interact with each other and jointly influence job performance. The trait theory at the early stage believed that individual trait was the main factor determining the level of work performance, and some scholars also believed that organizational structure was an important factor influencing performance(Ruck, Welch & Menara, 2017). Modern management science and psychology studies have shown that the factors affecting employee performance mainly comes from the three aspects: individual, organization, and work. This formula shows that job performance is a person, organization, the function of three variables (Ruck, Welch & Menara, 2017). It is the interaction and influence of these three relatively independent factors that eventually produce the realistic individual work performance. The following is a detailed discussion of these three influencing factors.
18.104.22.168 Personal factors
Personal factors include employees' ability, attitude, and personality. Ability is the most necessary psychological characteristic for an individual to complete an activity or task successfully. It can be divided into general ability and special ability. Through the comprehensive analysis of objective things, individuals can complete an activity by utilizing the knowledge and skills they have mastered, which is the ability. Under the premise that other factors remain unchanged, the stronger the employee's ability to work is, the more significant the work performance will be, that is, the employee's ability is directly proportional to the work performed. Ability plays an important decisive role in the level of individual performance (Anuradha & Ghuman, 2017). Attitude is a person outside the object is relatively stable; by three components to cognition, scene, tendencies of natural psychological tendency, it decided the people to choose what kind of object, how to process the information for the object, and the appropriate reaction to information. Attitude has a direct impact on work performance by influencing learning efficiency, work efficiency, social cognition and judgment, tolerance, team compatibility and cohesion, and motivation. Individuals in the social life, by psychological process of cognition, emotion, will reflect the objective things, reflect these gradually be preserved and strengthened, and finally form an individual's attitude to objective things, and reflected in the individual's social behavior, this is a character. Personality includes three different types: volitional, intellectual and emotional. There is nothing good or bad about personality per se, but those that involve positive, proactive, uplifting thoughts and behaviors will help improve performance (Wegrich, 2015).
22.214.171.124 organizational factors
Organizational factors include group pressure factors, motivation factors, performance assessment factors, organizational culture factors, etc. Group pressure refers to the binding effect of existing group norms on individual psychology and behavior, which will force individuals to comply with group norms (Raines, 2011). Group pressure is a double-edged sword to improve employee performance. When an individual's work performance is significantly lower than or higher than that of the majority of the group, the existence of group pressure will be felt. In this case, the individual is prone to a psychological state of tension or fear, worry by other group members crowding out or ignored, which prompted him to increase or decrease performance, returns to a state of relatively consistent with groups. Motivation refers to motivating the initiative, sex, enthusiasm, and creativity of the management to achieve the work goals by setting the working output result conditions. Incentives include external incentives and internal incentives (Balakrishnan& S, 2015). External incentives include benefits, promotion, rewards, etc., which can significantly improve employee performance during certain periods. Intrinsic motivation including good training system, promotion system, provide a variety of support for employees realize their value, and so on, this way usually needs a long time but can achieve lasting incentive effect. For organizations, scientific incentives can effectively stimulate employees' work enthusiasm and innovative spirit, to improve their work performance. Performance appraisal is to objectively understand employees' working conditions, abilities, and adaptability, and evaluate employees' personalities, abilities, attitudes and work output results. Performance appraisal itself can affect employee's work performance, behavior and results need to be clarified in the inspection plan of performance standards, and to be strict, fair to produce positive role to employees; On the contrary, ambiguous and unfair performance appraisal methods will cause employees to have negative emotions and boycott behaviors, thus affecting work performance (Showail, McLean Parks & Smith, 2013). Organizational culture refers to all members of an organization together with the collection of values, beliefs, opinions, and code of conduct, usually can be divided into power culture, role culture, supportive culture, and achievement. Organizational culture provides an important organizational environment for employee performance. For example, innovative organizational culture can stimulate the innovation spirit of employees, encourage employees to try new things and methods boldly, and continuously inject vitality and spiritual force to improve their work performance.
126.96.36.199 work factors
The working factors include the task itself, the working method and the working environment. The task itself has a certain influence on job performance, task goal is clear, whether must work fully, task emergency degree, whether there is a history lesson here will affect the job performance (Arrowsmith & Parker, 2013). The working method refers to the way and method adopted by employees to complete tasks, including the use of working tools, the design of working process and the coordination of work, etc. The quality of working methods directly affects the efficiency and quality of work output: the use of working tools affects the speed and quality of task completion; The workflow is the work step, and its scientific and reasonable determine the logic and organization of the work. Whether the work coordination is appropriate or not directly affects the work coordination and effect of employees (Bezuijen, et al., 2010). Working environment refers to the scope and space for employees to carry out their work, which usually includes material conditions, equipment, and raw materials supply in the workplace (Eaglebarger, 2017). Though the work environment is the external factors that affect job performance but plays a considerable role, only provide high-quality resources and conditions of the necessary to complete the tasks, to let employees concentrate on my work, improve the efficiency of work output. 'so, there are many factors which can affect work performance, and in this paper, the study of the knowledge employee engagement exactly should belong to the category of individual factors of attitude factors, and the assumptions of this study was the work performance of other factors unchanged.
1.2 Employee engagement
1.2.1 The definition of employee engagement
Participation is defined as: "the employment and self-expression, both at work and at the same time, and by organizing member on physical, cognitive and emotional positive fully demonstrate role to promote the individual contact work with others" (Alfes, et al., 2013). Studies of engagement to consultancy, originated in the western developed countries, with the deepening of the consultancy to employee engagement practice and research, as well as the gradual development of psychology, academia beginning to let more and more attention to the study of the engagement. At home, though the word "professional" familiar, but a proposition of employee engagement for scholars to explore, and the domestic-related research is still in its infancy. So far, there is no unified definition of employee engagement, domestic and foreign researchers or consultants (Boiral & Paillé, 2012). Although scholars and research institutions understanding of employee engagement each is not identical, they all emphasize the point together (Eaglebarger, 2017). Namely, the employee engagement refers to the employees in the emotion and knowledge for a commitment and investment in the enterprise and work. Based on predecessors' research for reference, the author thinks that employee engagement is through the physical, psychological and externalizing behaviors of employees of the organization and the degree of identity and commitment of the work itself. The discretion of the employee engagement to take on staff willing to will be able to decide to apply to the work of degree ", the higher the extent of application, the higher the employee engagement, the higher the role and the work have a positive impact to the enterprise (Bal & De Lange, 2015).
1.2.2 Measurements of employee engagement
Experts, scholars, and consultancies have also divided the measurement dimensions of engagement while proposing the concept of participation respectively. Based on academics and consultants their point of view, it could summarize the engagement dimensions for the unidimensional knot hook model and multidimensional structure model (Daniels, 2016). Two categories of the dimensional model in academic research and application at present relatively authority is put forward . "vigor, dedication, are focus on" three factors model, and the related academic studies both at home and abroad has been widely used.