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1.1.3 Factors influencing performance management in a term of the measurement
There are many factors influencing job performance. They usually interact with each other and jointly influence job performance. The trait theory at the early stage believed that individual trait was the main factor determining the level of work performance, and some scholars also believed that organizational structure was an important factor influencing performance(Ruck, Welch & Menara, 2017). Modern management science and psychology studies have shown that the factors affecting employee performance mainly comes from the three aspects: individual, organization, and work. This formula shows that job performance is a person, organization, the function of three variables (Ruck, Welch & Menara, 2017). It is the interaction and influence of these three relatively independent factors that eventually produce the realistic individual work performance. The following is a detailed discussion of these three influencing factors.
126.96.36.199 Personal factors
Personal factors include employees' ability, attitude, and personality. Ability is the most necessary psychological characteristic for an individual to complete an activity or task successfully. It can be divided into general ability and special ability. Through the comprehensive analysis of objective things, individuals can complete an activity by utilizing the knowledge and skills they have mastered, which is the ability. Under the premise that other factors remain unchanged, the stronger the employee's ability to work is, the more significant the work performance will be, that is, the employee's ability is directly proportional to the work performed. Ability plays an important decisive role in the level of individual performance (Anuradha & Ghuman, 2017). Attitude is a person outside the object is relatively stable; by three components to cognition, scene, tendencies of natural psychological tendency, it decided the people to choose what kind of object, how to process the information for the object, and the appropriate reaction to information. Attitude has a direct impact on work performance by influencing learning efficiency, work efficiency, social cognition and judgment, tolerance, team compatibility and cohesion, and motivation. Individuals in the social life, by psychological process of cognition, emotion, will reflect the objective things, reflect these gradually be preserved and strengthened, and finally form an individual's attitude to objective things, and reflected in the individual's social behavior, this is a character. Personality includes three different types: volitional, intellectual and emotional. There is nothing good or bad about personality per se, but those that involve positive, proactive, uplifting thoughts and behaviors will help improve performance (Wegrich, 2015).
For the methods of syntactic parsing and semantic parsing, it is pointed out that due to the distance between linguistic theories and actual application of natural languages,parsing should comprise both grammars and algorithms. (T.J. Zhao, 2000, p.156) And it is also pointed out that grammars are only the illustrative representation of knowledge structure of languages. (R.Q. Lu, 1996, p.955) When grammars function as the tool of the parsing of languages, grammars are referred to as language recognizers. Here the specific recognition processes are not included in the grammars overtly. Therefore, in order to construct the actual recognition processes, it is necessary to have another representation method, which is referred to as automata such as pushdown automata.(Lewis&Papadimitriou, 1998)
Head-driven phrase structure grammar (HPSG) is an integrated theory of natural language syntax and semantics. (Pollard&Sag, 1994)
In HPSG word, phrase and sentence are all signs. Signs have phonological, syntactic, semantic and discourse attributes. One way to represent attribute structure is
through attribute-value matrix (ABM). (Pollard&Sag, 1994)
HPSG consists of rule schemata and lexical entries. The attribute structure of a lexical entry is the total sum of its attributes and the values of these attributes. The attribute structure of a schema is the sum of attribute structures of the lexical entries in the schema. The attribute structure of a sentence is the sum of attribute structures of the schemata in the sentence. (Pollard&Sag, 1994)
The mother node in a schema is the head. The reason is as follows:
HPSG has two characteristics: 1 .It inherits the principles of GPSq and is a grammar based on constraints. 2. In the meantime, it assimilates the strong points of LFq http://www.ukthesis.org/yyxzy/ emphasizes the importance of lexicon in language construction. The main feature
of this grammar is that it emphasizes the role that heads play in parsing, and the whole grammatical system is head-driven. (Pollard&Sag, 1994)
HPSG embodies the process of imparting head information through the SUBCAT
feature of lexical items. In HPSq the SUBCAT feature is made of a constituent list,
which describes in detail the features of the lexical item which is a head. (Pollard&Sag,1994) Heads in phrase structure grammar refer to constituents that determine the main functions of a sentence or phrase when a sentence or phrase is constructed. For example,in a verb phrase, the verb is the head of this phrase. (T. J. Zhao, 2000)
Since HPSG particularly highlights the role which head plays, according to SUBCAT feature of the head, it is possible that the grammatical information of the head as well as other constituents can be associated very conveniently, such that information of the whole sentence is associated with the heads as the kernel. Complex attributes can be used to represent information of sentences, and this facilitates the processing. (T. J.Zhao, 2000)
188.8.131.52 organizational factors
Organizational factors include group pressure factors, motivation factors, performance assessment factors, organizational culture factors, etc. Group pressure refers to the binding effect of existing group norms on individual psychology and behavior, which will force individuals to comply with group norms (Raines, 2011). Group pressure is a double-edged sword to improve employee performance. When an individual's work performance is significantly lower than or higher than that of the majority of the group, the existence of group pressure will be felt. In this case, the individual is prone to a psychological state of tension or fear, worry by other group members crowding out or ignored, which prompted him to increase or decrease performance, returns to a state of relatively consistent with groups. Motivation refers to motivating the initiative, sex, enthusiasm, and creativity of the management to achieve the work goals by setting the working output result conditions. Incentives include external incentives and internal incentives (Balakrishnan& S, 2015). External incentives include benefits, promotion, rewards, etc., which can significantly improve employee performance during certain periods. Intrinsic motivation including good training system, promotion system, provide a variety of support for employees realize their value, and so on, this way usually needs a long time but can achieve lasting incentive effect. For organizations, scientific incentives can effectively stimulate employees' work enthusiasm and innovative spirit, to improve their work performance. Performance appraisal is to objectively understand employees' working conditions, abilities, and adaptability, and evaluate employees' personalities, abilities, attitudes and work output results. Performance appraisal itself can affect employee's work performance, behavior and results need to be clarified in the inspection plan of performance standards, and to be strict, fair to produce positive role to employees; On the contrary, ambiguous and unfair performance appraisal methods will cause employees to have negative emotions and boycott behaviors, thus affecting work performance (Showail, McLean Parks & Smith, 2013). Organizational culture refers to all members of an organization together with the collection of values, beliefs, opinions, and code of conduct, usually can be divided into power culture, role culture, supportive culture, and achievement. Organizational culture provides an important organizational environment for employee performance. For example, innovative organizational culture can stimulate the innovation spirit of employees, encourage employees to try new things and methods boldly, and continuously inject vitality and spiritual force to improve their work performance.