Won with they words, & conquered with thy looks,
I yield my selfe, my men & horse to thee (350-52, 419, 423-4)
Liberation is here figured as one of two choices: to reject the divine or to take it over. In Tamburlaine's case, he alternatively threatens heaven and dares the gods, or claims identity with the divine to sanction his violence: 'til by vision, or by speech I heare / Immortall Ioue say, Cease my Tamburlaine, / I will persist a terrour to the world …' (3873-75). Tamburlaine self-aggrandizement is given divine legitimacy: Tamburlaine believes that his tyranny and martial lust are condoned through the gods through their silence.
The two-part Tamburlaine is based on the historical figure of Timur, a bloody conqueror of Asia, whose greed for power and extravagance culminates with his inevitable downfall. Tamburlaine deviates from the tragic norm in his depiction of the tragic hero; Tamburlaine is not humbled by his dramatic fall, and no moral lesson is learned and repentance achieved. Tamburlaine does not conform to the model of the tragic hero set out in Poetics. The tragic hero is fated to make a serious error which will cause his fall and tragic death, usually caused by hubris, or prideful arrogance, but he remains likeable to the audience for his inherent goodness. Tamburlaine, in contrast, is a character whose goodness is notably absent.
In contrast the Aristotlean model, in which the tragic hero is noble from birth, Tamburlaine is an obscure Scythian shepherd in the opening of part 1. He quickly ascends through his bravery and his eloquent speech, and his ferocity on the battlefield. Tamburlaine sees himself as the 'scourge of God' and even dreams of leading his armies in war against the divine army in heaven. In a scene in which Tamburlaine has defeated Cosroe, he responds to Cosroe's demands for the reasons behind his treachery.
Nature, that fram'd us of four elements
Warring within our breasts for regiment,
Doth teach us all to have aspiring minds:
Our souls, whose faculties can comprehend
The wondrous architecture of the world,
And measure every wandering planet's course,
Still climbing after knowledge infinite,
And always moving as the restless spheres,
Wills us to wear ourselves and never rest,
Until we reach the ripest fruit of all,
That perfect bliss and sole felicity,
The sweet fruition of an earthly crown. (I.iv. 13-29)
With this final line Tamburlaine snatches the crown from dying Cosroe's head and places it on his own head, assuming the power of divine legitimacy for himself. Reordering the humours as in constant opposition, rather than harmonious order, is to legitimize his own militaristic behaviour as part of the 'natural' world. He is, in essence, creating himself out of nothing, as he became an emperor from a shepherd, and as such is taking over the divine role of creation. In doing so, he upsets the authority of the moral order, and even his death does not resolve the moral hierarchy.
In the joint venture enterprise,the cultural differences must bring cultural friction and cultural conflict.There are three levels in cultural differences.The first level of cultural differences is national cultural differences with social background;the medium level of cultural differences is corporate culture differences with enterprise features;the last level of cultural differences is differences of individual culture with personality characteristics.The national cultural differences is the main factor that forms the enterprise cultural differences.The international workplace culture differences include both the national cultural difference and the corporate culture differences.Thus,the international workplace culture differences would not only affect the employees of a joint venture,but also affect the each link of management of a joint venture.In the following,I will show the international workplace culturedifferencesof joint ventures between India and Unit States.
The theory of Geert Hofstede理论
Hofstede(1991)defines the cultural as psychological procedures are shared by groups with the same education and life experience.Thus,different cultural environment,economic,social and political factors would be bound to from a great cultural differences.Since the evolution of cultural is a kind of long and gradual process,the cultural difference in workplace would not disappear and would remain stable over a period of time.In the late 1960s,a Dutch scholar,Geert Hofstede,proposed the five dimensions which describe cultural differences.Specifically,the five dimensions are power distance,individualism vs Collectivism,masculinity vs.femininity,uncertainty avoidance and long term orientation.
The cultures of India and United Sates印度和美国的文化
The power distance refers to the power distance between employee and decision maker,which measure the concentration of power and the authoritarian degree of leaders.Moreover,the power distance also measure the reception on the unequal distribution of power among organizations.In the country with a high level of reception,the social level is distinct and power distance is large.However,in the country with low level of reception,people are equal to each other and the power distance is small.The size of the power distance is more obvious in the enterprise.In the company with larger power distance,the organizational hierarchy is distinct.However,in the company with small power distance,the organization structure is flat.
According to the dimension theory of Hofstede,there is very bright and strong religious character in Indian cultural.Many kinds of religious are coexisting in India.Moreover,Indian people are deeply convict their regions.Thus,in the enterprise of India,they emphasize the dominance of personal authority.In corporation,there is big gap between managers and their subordinates.In addition,the managers have greater authority.The reception of on the unequal distribution of power among organizations is higher than U.S,which belongs to the cultural of high power distance(Steelcase,2010).However,in US,people are advocating freedom and equality(Hofstede,1980).Everyone have the right to participate in planning decisions.The relationship between superior and subordinate is harmonious and relaxed.Thus,consciousness of equality is strong and the reception of on the unequal distribution of power among organizations is low,which belongs to the cultural of low power distance.Therefore,the cultural of US is small power distance and the cultural of Indian is large power distance.
Individualism vs Collectivism
The dimension of individualism vs collectivism measures the extent on the feeling of taking care for or being cared for by themselves.In the cultural of individualism,the ties between individuals are loose and they tend to be responsible for themselves.However,in the cultural of collectivism,people would pay much more attention on decision making and the attachment to collective.They are dedicated to help group’s numbers and they are absolutely loyal to the group.
The United States is a country with the prevailing of individualism,which emphasis on the self-realization of individual value and the competitive spirit of adventure.In the company of US,the individual responsibility on work is clear.The value of employees largely depends on the performance of individual job(Hofstede,1984).In Indian,there is deep feudal thought in religious culture.Thus,the individual consciousness is weaker than US.However,western culture has governed Indian for many years.Thus,the collectivism consciousness is weaker than China or other Asian countries(Steelcase,2010).Therefore,the cultural of US is individualism and the cultural of Indian is collectivism.
Masculinity refers to the pursuit of success,money and material.However,femininity is contrast to masculinity,which refers to care and pay attention to quality of life.Steelcase(2010)investigated that there is no significant different on masculinity vs.femininity between India and U.S.In other words,there is no particularly obvious divide on gender roles of society in both India and U.S.
Uncertainty avoidance measures the level on feeling threaten for uncertain situation.In the cultural of low uncertainty avoidance,people prefer to take risks,encourage innovations,and confidence in the future.In the cultural of high uncertain avoidance,people prefer to stay stability,believe authority,and would not tolerate deviant ideas or behaviors.In US,enterprises would not pay much more attention on innovate and encourage employees accept ambiguity.Moreover,Americans would more likely to tolerate the uncertainty future and change jobs more frequently(Christie,2003).However,in Indian,the rules and regulations in company is strict and follows the suggestions of specialist.Employees tend to have stronger feeling of anxiety and stress.Thus,the cultural of US is low uncertainty avoidance and the cultural of Indian is high uncertainty avoidance.
Long term orientation
Long term orientation refers to the degree to the attention on traditional culture and mainly measure the basic orientation of time.In the cultural of long term orientation,people would pay much more attention on the future values.In the cultural of short term orientation,people would focus on the benefit at present.
In Indian,many kinds of religious are coexisting in India and Indian people are deeply convict their regions.The enterprises of India would prefer to make long term plan on investment.However,in US,people would prefer to focus on the short term results and the returns on the investment in the short term(Malhotra et al.,2005).Thus,the cultural of US is short term orientation and the cultural of Indian is long term orientation.
In the late 1960s,a Dutch scholar,Geert Hofstede,proposed the five dimensions which describe cultural differences.Specifically,the five dimensions are power distance,individualism vs Collectivism,masculinity vs.femininity,uncertainty avoidance and long term orientation.Based on above discussion,we can draw the following conclusions.
1.The cultural of US is small power distance and the cultural of Indian is large power distance.
2.The cultural of US is individualism and the cultural of Indian is collectivism.
3.There is no particularly obvious divide on gender roles of society in both India and U.S.
4.The cultural of US is low uncertainty avoidance and the cultural of Indian is high uncertainty avoidance.
5.The cultural of US is short term orientation and the cultural of Indian is long term orientation.