The conclusion of The White Devil is ambiguous, fulfilling the catastrophic ending required of tragedy but without the suggestion of the nobility and greatness of man. Flamineo dies in despair of his worldly goods, wealth and advancement rather than in despair of his worthiness before God. There is the possibility of Flamineo accepting moral responsibility directly before his death as he reflects, 'While we looke up to heaven wee confound / Knowledge with knowledge' (V.vi.259-60), and yet immediately before this he said , 'I doe not looke / Who went before, nor who shall follow mee; / Noe, at my self I will begin and end' (V.vi.256-58). Although the play ends with the death of the tragic hero, as tradition dictates, this is not the satisfactory ending of classical tragedies. There is no remorse, no retraction of arrogance and greed in the face of the divine. As A.L. Kistner (1993) wondered, 'Where does it lie – in the triumph of will, in grabbing for every expression of self that this world has to offer or in the calm discipline of self-denial for a higher picture of man?' (267). Webster leaves the audience with an unsatisfactory portrait of free choice and the capacity for moral responsibility.
The emergence in the 1580s of an Elizabethan tragic tradition which manipulated the limitations of classical generic boundaries points toward the developing self-consciousness of a modern culture. As evidenced in such works as Tamburlaine and The White Devil, the theatre was the site of an evolving culture in conflict with the older, traditional forms of expression. Marlowe, Webster and Heywood used the stage 'for the assertion and defense of an ego which … was constantly threatened by powerful forces of desire and conscience, forces which [they] coped with as best as [they] could by making them conscious, by finding a form for them which would command social understanding and the control of shared social attitudes' (Barber 37). The new tragic genre was a way of registering an experience of change and dislocation, a shift from the Classical tradition of moral order and stability.
In the 21th century,genetically modified technology has become one of the most important technologies(Frewer,et al.,2003).Correspondingly,genetically modified foods has completely updated the concepts of traditional food,andgot rid of the realistic crisis of human hunger and poverty.However,genetically modified foods would also bring unpredictable risks to both the environment and human health.Thus,the debate about genetically modified foods have never ceased,and become the focus of attention around the world.
The definition of genetically modified foods转基因食品的定义
The process of genetically modified refers to one or more exogenous genes are transferred to a specific organism by using genetically modified technology,and the specific organism can effectively express the corresponding polypeptides or proteins(Frewer,et al.,2004).The raw materials of genetically modified foods is the genetically modified organisms.The genetically modified food can be divided into 3 categories:the genetically modified plant food,the genetically modified animal food,and genetically modified microorganism(Frewer,et al.,2003).
The benefits of genetically modified foods转基因食品的好处
i.The genetically modified technology can boost the productivity of crop,address the shortages of foods,and reduce the pollution of environment(Frewer,et al.,2004).Using genetic engineering techniques,such as DNA recombination technology,cell fusion techniques,biologist would integrate genes resisting disease,pests,drought,or other stresses into crops.The new GM strains with good characters can effectively reduce the production cost and increase the production.Thus,the genetically modified foods can not only solve the shortages of foods,but also reduce or avoid the usage of pesticides and fertilizers.
ii.In addition,the genetically modified technology canextend the preservation of fruit and vegetable(Frewer,et al.,2003).For example,after adding antifreeze gene of a kind of Marie fish growth in the arctic regions in ordinary tomatoes,the shelf life time of tomatoes can be greatly prolonged.
iii.The genetically modified technology can improve the taste and quality of food(Schneider&Schneider,2009).The method of changing flavors of traditional foods is adding additive agent.However,the additive agent contains harmful ingredients.By changing or transferring certain genes,the genetically modified technology can change the taste and nutrients of food.For example,importing or replacing gene of milk can produce ate milk for specific group.Moreover,the genetically modified technology can provide an effective way to cultivate excellent new strains and improve the quality of animal food.