iending and deposit business
asset management and
foreign exchange trading.
Trading has been given as an alternative to interest based transactions by Quran e Kareem as mentioned above. In the light of this fact the comtemporary Islamic scholars after reviewing the current financial system have comeup with different modes of financing to fulfill the much needed requirement. In the futher discussion we shall discuss those modes of financing. But first we would define Islamic banking as per the State Bank Of Pakistan.
Islamic banking has the same utility as of conventional banking except that it asserts to function in agreement with the rules of Islamic Jurisprudence, called Fiqh ul Muamalat (Islamic regulations for transactions). The indispensable law of Islamic banking is the sharing of gain and loss and the prohibition of interest and Gharar. The Islamic concepts, that are mainly used in Islamic banking are profit sharing combination of isolated investor and worker (Mudharabah), safekeeping (Amanah), joint venture (Musharkah), Diminishing Musharkah, cost plus profit (Murabahah), asset finance (Ijarah), manufacturing (Istisna) and agricultural goods (Salaam). Islamic banking proposes to a structure of banking or participatory pooling actions that is dependable on Islamic Jurisprudence (Sharia'h) and channeled by Islamic economics. Islamic law prohibits interest the collection and payment of Usury. Islamic law also disallows trading in financial risk (since it is a form of gambling) discussed above as Gharar. In addition, Islamic Jurisprudence excludes participation in businesses which are deemed Haram (a going concern which deals in pork or alcohol). At the verge of 20th century, quite a few Islamic banks were crafted, to cater to this specific banking market. (Hassan, 2002)
This article would like to explain the difference between social process:learning theory and strain theory to solve the issue of fraud in the respective of workplace crime in New Zealand.
The definition of the concept of fraud in workplace crime is the logical starting point to study the causes of fraud in workplace crime and the premise to effectively prevent fraud in workplace crime(White,Haines,&Asquith,2017).In the sense of criminology,some people define fraud in workplace crime,that is,"'fraud in workplace crime'refers to the abuse of public power for private interests of socially deviant behavior."Some people define fraud in workplace crime from the perspective of criminal law,holding that"fraud in workplace crime is the behavior subject's abuse or use public power for personal gain,resulting in the interests of the country and the people suffer losses,and should be subject to criminal punishment according to law."Both views have their plausibility,but the former includes criminological corruption and is more widely defined than the latter.Based on the"shoulder"that predecessors have made a reasonable definition of the concept of fraud in workplace crime,and the necessity of analyzing the social causes of fraud in workplace crime,the following is only a rough division of the types of fraud in workplace crime.In fact,"there is no crime without criminal law"and"there is no crime without criminal law."The non-criminal law explicitly stipulates that the behavior of punishment is not a crime,and the research on the cause of crime cannot be divorced entirely from legal norms.Therefore,the definition of fraud in workplace crime should be carried out in the context of the current criminal law.The legal interests of the crime of embezzlement and bribery are clean and incorruptible.The perpetrators of such crimes are often motivated by greed,the transaction of power and money,and the selling of their official duties.The criminal law stipulates the crime of malfeasance,which aims to protect the lawful,fair,effective execution of the public affairs of the state organs and the trust of the people.These crimes,whether abuse of position,abuse of power or abuse of power,malpractice for personal gain,or neglect of duty,are all ACTS of playing with the power of the public,ignoring the duties of performing official duties legally,justly and effectively,and ignoring the interests of the state and the people.Therefore,the crime of corruption should be divided into two types:venal corruption and bribery and power malfeasance in New Zealand.